Modifiable danger elements linked with DR, DME in pediatric diabetes

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Sampani K et al. Modifiable Risk Factors for Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) and Macular Edema (DME) in Children with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). Presented at: Annual Meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology; May 1-7, 2021 (virtual meeting).

Disclosure:
Sampani does not report any relevant financial information.

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Modifiable risk factors, including high blood pressure and HbA1c, have been linked to diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes, according to a study.

In her talk at the meeting of the Virtual Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Constantine Sampanme, MD, These risk factors for vascular complications such as DR and DME are well known in adults with diabetes, but have not been fully studied in children.

“With the steady rise in obesity and diabetes rates in children around the world, and the fact that retinopathy is the most common diabetic vascular complication, it is particularly important right now to study the contribution of the body mass index to the risk of developing DR. ” She said.

Using medical records from 2005 to 2020, researchers performed a chart review of pediatric subjects to identify factors associated with DR and DME in diabetics. They collected demographic information, DR and DME severity, and data on blood pressure, BMI, and HbA1c.

The analysis included 3,454 eyes from 1,735 subjects. The mean age of the subjects was 15.4 years, the duration of diabetes 7.1 years, the mean age of onset of diabetes 8.3 years and the mean HbA1c level 8.4%. DR was present in 8.5% of the eyes and DME was present in 1.3% of the eyes.

Sampani and colleagues found that DR was associated with higher HbA1c (P <0.0001) and increased or high blood pressure (P <0.0001), but not with higher BMI.

Only elevated HbA1c levels were associated with DME in pediatric patients with diabetes (P = 0.002). However, the association did not remain significant in a multivariate analysis.

“Efforts to optimize these factors in adolescents from an early age can help reduce subsequent adverse eye outcomes,” said Sampani. “Further prospective longitudinal studies can assess whether early intervention to improve factors other than glycemic control, such as weight or blood pressure, can reduce the incidence of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.”

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Association for vision and eye research

Association for vision and eye research