FRIDAY, March 12, 2021 (HealthDay News) – A single treatment of teplizumab delays the progression of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and improves beta cell function in high-risk people. This is evident from a study published in the March 3 issue of Science Translational Medicine.
Emily K. Sims, MD, of Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, and colleagues studied the effects of a single 14-day treatment with teplizumab on metabolic function and immune cells in participants in a randomized controlled trial of people at high risk for diabetes T1D who have relatives with T1D. An extended follow-up (median 923 days) of a previous report on treatment with teplizumab was performed.
The researchers found that the median times to diagnosis for participants treated with teplizumab and placebo were 59.6 and 27.1 months, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.457). Overall, 50 and 22 percent of the participants treated with teplizumab and placebo remained diabetes-free. Beta cell function was improved by treatment with teplizumab, with the mean C-peptide area under the curve (AUC) during the study being 1.94 versus 1.72 pmol / ml. A decrease in insulin secretion before ingestion was reversed with drug treatment, followed by a stabilization of the decreasing C-peptide AUC observed with placebo treatment. After drug treatment, the proinsulin: C-peptide ratios were similar between the treatment groups.
“Any time without diabetes is important, especially for those children who might have the chance to grow up without diabetes,” a co-author said in a statement.
One author disclosed financial ties to Provention Bio, which developed the study drug.
Abstract / full text